The executive functions are a set of processes that all have to do with managing oneself and one's resources in order to achieve a goal. It is an umbrella term for the neurologically-based skills involving mental control and self-regulation. Continue to the end of these descriptions for sample strategies to assist students.
Inhibition - The ability to stop one's own behavior at the appropriate time, including stopping actions and thoughts. The flip side of inhibition is impulsivity; if you have weak ability to stop yourself from acting on your impulses.
Shift - The ability to move freely from one situation to another and to think flexibly in order to respond appropriately to the situation.
Emotional Control - The ability to modulate emotional responses by bringing rational thought to bear on feelings.
Initiation - The ability to begin a task or activity and to independently generate ideas, responses, or problem-solving strategies.
Working memory - The capacity to hold information in mind for the purpose of completing a task.
Planning/Organization - The ability to manage current and future- oriented task demands.
Organization of Materials - The ability to impose order on work, play, and storage spaces.
Self-Monitoring - The ability to monitor one's own performance and to measure it against some standard of what is needed or expected.
Source: LD Online